10 May 2008

Hell In Islam (Jahannam)

Source : http://www.thedeenshow.com/

A Description of Hellfire (part 1 of 5): An Introduction

Islam teaches that Hell is a real place prepared by God for those who do not believe in Him, rebel against His laws, and reject His messengers. Hell is an actual place, not a mere state of mind or a spiritual entity. The horrors, pain, anguish, and punishment are all real, but different in nature than their earthly counterparts. Hell is the ultimate humiliation and loss, and nothing is worse than it

“Our Lord! Surely, whom You admit to the Fire, indeed You have disgraced him, and never will the wrongdoers find any helpers.”
(Quran 3:192)

“Know they not that whoever opposes God and His Messenger (Muhammad), certainly for him will be the Fire of Hell to abide therein? That is the extreme disgrace.” (Quran 9:63)

The Names of Hell Hell Fire has different names in Islamic texts. Each name gives a separate description. Some of its names are:

Jaheem – fire - because of its blazing fire.

Jahannam - Hell - because of the depth of its pit.

Ladthaa - blazing fire - because of its flames.

Sa’eer - blazing flame - because it is kindled and ignited.

Saqar - because of the intensity of its heat.

Hatamah - broken pieces or debris - because it breaks and crushes everything that is thrown into it.

Haawiyah - chasm or abyss - because the one who is thrown into it is thrown from top to bottom

Paradise and Hell Presently Exist and are Eternal, Hell exists at the present time and will continue to exist forever. It will never pass away and its inhabitants will remain in it forever. Traditional Muslim belief is that no one will come out of Hell except sinful believers who believed in the Oneness of God in this life and believed in the specific prophet sent to them. The polytheists and unbelievers will reside in it forever. This belief has been held from classical times and is based on clear verses of the Quran and confirmed reports from the Prophet of Islam. The Quran speaks of Hell in the past tense and states that it has already been created:

“And fear the Fire which is prepared for the disbelievers.” (Quran 3:131)

The Prophet of Islam said:

“When any of you dies, he is shown his position (in the Hereafter) morning and evening. If he is one of the people of Paradise, he is shown the place of the people of Paradise. If he is one of the people of Hell, he is shown the place of people of Hell. He is told, ‘this is your position, until God resurrects you on the Day of Resurrection.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim)

In another report, the Prophet said:

“Surely, the soul of a believer is a bird hanging on the trees of Paradise, until God returns it to his body on the Day of Resurrection.” (Muwatta of Malik)

These texts make it clear that Hell and Paradise exist, and that souls may enter them before the Day of Resurrection. Speaking of Hell’s eternity, God says:

“They will long to leave the Fire, but never will they leave there from; and theirs will be a lasting torment.” (Quran 5:37)

“And they will never leave of the Fire.” (Quran 2:167)

“Surely, those who disbelieve and did wrong; God will not forgive them, nor will He guide them to any way except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever.” (Quran 4:168-169)

“Surely, God has cursed the disbelievers, and has prepared for them a flaming Fire wherein they will abide for ever.” (Quran 33:64)

“And whosoever disobeys God and His Messenger, then surely, for him is the fire of Hell, he shall dwell therein forever.” (Quran 72:23)

The Keepers of Hell, Mighty and stern angels stand over Hell who never disobey God. They do precisely as ordered. God says:

“O you who believe, save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is men and stones over which are (appointed) angels, stern and severe, who flinch not (from executing) the commands they receive from God, but do (precisely what) they are commanded.” (Quran 66:6)

They are nineteen keepers of Hell as God says:

“Soon I will cast him into Hell Fire. And what will explain to you what is Hellfire? Nothing does it allow to endure, and nothing does it leave alone! Darkening and changing the color of man! Over it are nineteen (angels as keepers of Hell).” (Quran 74:26:30)

One should not think that the inhabitants of Hell will be able to overcome the keepers of Hell because there are just nineteen of them. Everyone of them has the strength to subdue all humanity by himself. These angels are called the Guards of Hell by God in the Quran:

“And those in the Fire will say to the Guards of Hell, “Call upon your Lord to lighten for us the torment for a day!” (Quran 40:49)

The name of the chief angel guarding over Hell is Malik, as mentioned in the Quran:
“Surely, the disbelievers will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. (The torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein. We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers. And they will cry: ‘O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us’ He will say: ‘Surely, you shall abide forever.’ Indeed We have brought the truth to you, but most of you have a hatred for the truth” (Quran 43:74-78)

Its Location
There is no exact mention from the Quran or the sayings of Prophet Muhammad which pinpoint the location of Hell. No one knows its exact place except God. Due to some linguistic evidence and context of certain hadeeth, some scholars have stated that Hell is in the heavens, yet others say it is in the lower earth.

Its Size, Hell is huge and immensely deep. We know this through several ways.

First, innumerable people will enter Hell, each, as described in a hadeeth, with the molar teeth as large as a small mountain.[1] The distance between the shoulders of its inhabitants has also been described as being equivalent to three days of walking.[2] Hell will house all the unbelievers and sinners from the beginning of time and there will still be room for more. God says:

“On the Day when We will say to Hell: ‘Are you filled?’ It will say, ‘Are there any more (to come)?’” (Quran 50:30)

The Fire of Hell is likened to a mill that grinds thousands and thousands of tons of grain and then waits for more to come.

Second, a stone thrown from the top of Hell will take a very long time to reach the bottom. One of the companions of the Prophet, may God praise him, describes how they were sitting with the Prophet and heard the sound of something falling. The Prophet inquired if they knew what it was. When they expressed their lack of knowledge, he said:

“That was a stone thrown into Hell seventy years ago and it is yet in the way (the other side) of Hell until now.”[3]

Another report states:
“If a stone as big as seven pregnant camels was thrown from the edge of Hell, it would fly through it for seventy years, and yet it would not reach the bottom.”[4]

Third, a great many angels will bring Hell on the Day of Resurrection. God speaks of it:

“And Hell will be brought near that Day.” (Quran 89:23)

The Prophet said:

“Hell will be brought forth that Day by means of seventy thousand ropes, each of which will be held by seventy thousand angels.”[5]

Fourth, another report that indicates the vast size of Hell is that the sun and moon will be rolled up in Hell on the Day of Resurrection.[6] Its Levels Hell has various levels of heat and punishment, each is reserved according to the extent of their disbelief and sins of those being punished. God says:

“Surely, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire.” (Quran 4:145) The lower the level of Hell, the greater is the intensity of heat. Since the hypocrites will suffer the worst punishment, so will they be in the lowest part of Hell.

God refers to the levels of Hell in the Quran:

“For all will be (ranked) by degrees according to what they did.” (Quran 6:132)

“Is one who seeks the good pleasure of God then like the one who draws on himself the wrath of God? His abode is Hell – and worst, indeed, is that destination! They are in varying grades with God, and God is All-Seer of what they do.” (Quran 3:162-163)

The Gates of Hell God speaks of seven Gates of Hell in the Quran: “And surely, Hell is the promised place for them all. It has seven gates, for each of these gates is a class of sinners assigned.” (Quran 15:43-44)

Each gate has an allotted share of the damned who will enter through it. Each will enter according to his deeds and assigned a level of Hell accordingly. When the unbelievers are brought to Hell, its gates will open, they will enter it, and stay in it forever:

“And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups until, when they reach it, its gates are opened and its keepers will say, ‘Did there not come to you messengers from yourselves, reciting to you the verses of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?’ They will say, ‘Yes, but the word (meaning the decree) of punishment has come into effect upon the disbelievers.’” (Quran 35:71)

They will be told after admission:

“Enter the gates of Hell to abide eternally therein, and wretched is the residence of the arrogant.” (Quran 39:72)

The gates will be shut and there will be no hope of escape as God says:

“But those who reject Our signs, they are the companions of the left hand. On them will be Fire vaulted over (meaning the gates will be locked).[7]” (Quran 90:19-20)

Furthermore, God says in the Quran: “Woe to every scorner and mocker, who collects wealth and (continuously) counts it. He thinks that his wealth will make him immortal. No! He will surely be thrown into the Crusher. And what can make you know what is the Crushers? It is the fire of God, (eternally) fueled, Which mounts directed at the hearts. Indeed, it (Hellfire) will be closed down upon them in extended columns.” (Quran 104:1-9)

The gates of Hell are also closed before the Day of Judgment. The Prophet of Islam spoke of them closing in the month of Ramadan.[8] Its Fuel
Stones and stubborn unbelievers make the fuel of Hell as God says:

“O you who have believed, protect yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones.” (Quran 66:6)

“then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.” (Quran 2:24)

Another source of fuel for Hell will be the pagan gods that were worshipped besides God:

“Indeed, you (disbelievers) and what you worship other than God are the firewood of Hell. You will be coming to (enter) it. Had these (false deities) been (actual) gods, they would not have come to it, but all are eternal therein.” (Quran 21:98-99)

The Clothing of its Inhabitants God tells us that the dress of the people of Hell will be garments of fire tailored for them:

“But those who disbelieved will have cut out for them garments of fire. Poured upon their heads will be scalding water.” (Quran 22:19)

“And you will see the criminals that Day bound together in shackles, their garments of liquid pitch (melted copper) and their faces covered by the Fire.” (Quran 14:49-50)

[1] Saheeh Muslim
[2] Saheeh Muslim
[3] Mishkat
[4] Sahih al-Jami’
[5] Saheeh Muslim
[6] Tahawi in Mushkal al-Aathaar, Bazzar, Baihaqi, and others.
[7] Based on the explanation of Ibn Abbas (‘Tafsir Ibn Kathir’).
[8] Tirmidhi.