About Menses (Haiz) and Istehada (Prolonged morbid menstruation)1 : The blood which usually comes every month from the vagina of a woman is called Haiz (menses).
2 : The least duration of menses is three days and three nights and the maximum us ten days and ten nights. So if one has menses for less then three days and three nights, then it is not menses, rather it is 'Istehada'. It has happened due to some disease. If the blood has come for more than ten days and ten nights, so the dasy other than ten, will be included in 'Istehada'.
3 : In case it (the blood) comes for three days, but it stops before the third night is passed; for example, if if starts form the morning if Friday and stops by the sun-set, then also it is not menses, rather it is 'Istehada'. In short, if it is even a little less than three days and nights, it is not at all 'menses'. For instance, if the blood starts from the morning of Friday at the sun-rise, and it stops in Sunday, a little before the sun-rise, then it is nit menses, rather it is 'Istehada'.
4 : During the period of menses, the blood in red, yellow, green, 'Khaki' that is dust-Coloured, or in whatever colour it comes, it is menses, unless the sanitary towel remains white. And when it looks white as it was kept, then she (the woman) become clean form the menses.
5 : Nobody has menses before nine and after fifty-five years of age. Therefore, the blood which comes to a minor girl less than nine years old is not menses, rather it is 'Istehada'. In case the blood comes after fifty-five years, and if it is too reddish or black, then it is menses, but the yellow or green or dust-coloured is not menses, rather it is 'Istehada'. But if this woman had yellow or green or dust-coloured blood before this age, then even after fifty-five years it will be taken as menses. But if it is against the habit, then it is not menses but 'Istehada'
6 : If one had blood for three or four days, but in some month it come for more days but not more than ten days, then it is all menses. But if it exceeded more than ten days, then it is 'Istehada' for the days more than what it used to come habitually. For example, if it habitually comes to one for three days, but in some month it come for nine or ten days, then it is all menses, But if it exceeds even a little more than ten days and nights, then only three days are those of menses and the rest are those of 'Istehada'. One has to offer compensatory Prayer (Namaz) for those days.
7 : If a woman who has no fixed habit i.e. blood comes to her sometimes for four days and sometimes foe seven days and it so often changes kike that and sometimes it comes for ten days as well, then it is all menses. If blood comes to such a woman for more than ten days and nights, then it is to be noted as for how many days it came in the pervious months. Now it is menses for the days formerly fixed for the same and it is 'Istehada' for the rest of the days.
8 : If someone always had menses for four days, but in some month it come for five days and came for fifteen days in the next month, then out of these fifteen days, five days will be counted as those of menses and the rest ten days as those of 'Istehada". In such a case, former habit will not come under consideration and it will be supposed that the habit is now changed to five-day cycle.
9 : One had blood for more than ten days, but she does not remember her former habit as for how many days it had come in the previous month, then the rule for it is so delicate that it is not very easy to understand and it seldom happens so. Therefore, I Leave out its description, If one needs it, she should consult some renowned scholar and not any ordinary 'Moulvi'.
10: If a girl had first experience of such a blood, then if it is for ten or a little less than ten days, then it is all menses; and if it comes for more than ten days, then it is menses for ten days and for the rest of the days it is 'Istehada'.
11: The last duration of cleanliness between two menses is a fortnight and for the most there is no limit. So if menses stops to anyone fro any reason, she will remain clean for the months menses does not come.
12: If someone has blood for three days and nights, then she remains clean for a fortnight, then again blood comes for three days and nights, then the blood before and after the fortnight will be taken that of menses and the fortnight in between, will be taken as the period of cleanliness.
13: If anyone has blood for a day or two and then remains clean for a fortnight, and the blood comes again for a bar or two, then the period in between is that of cleanliness. The blood which comes of a day or two before or after (the period of cleanliness) is not that of menses, but if 'Istehada'.
14: If one has blood for a day or for a few days and then remains clean for less than a fortnight, this is not at all reliable. In such a case it will be taken as if the blood remained continuing for the whole period. So the period habitually fixed for menses will be counted as those of menses but the rest will be taken as those of 'Istehada'. For example, if someone usually has menses by the first, second or third of every month, but in some month it happens that the blood comes on the first, and she remains clean for fourteen days and has blood once again fro one day only, then it be taken as if the blood remained continuing for the whole period or sixteen days. Out of these days, the period of three days passed earlier will be taken as the days of menses and the rest of the thirteen days are those of 'Istehada'. IF the fourth, fifth or sixth of every month are the dates of menses by habit, then these dates will come under the period of menses; and the three days passed earlier and the ten days passed later are those of 'Istehada'. But in case she has no fixed habit, then the ten days will be taken as those of menses and the rest of the six days as those of 'Istehada'.
15: The blood which comes during the period of conception is also not that of menses but it will come under 'Istehada'. no matter how many days it comes for.
16: The blood which comes at the time of child-birth, before the child comes out, is also that of 'Istehada'. In fact, that blood is also that of 'Istehada' which comes till the child comes out more than half.
About Menses (Haiz)1: If is not proper to offer 'Salat (prayer) or observe Saum (fast)' during the period of menses. But while one is exempted form offering Salat during this period compensatory 'Salat' is not due, 'Saum' is not excusable. One has to observe compensatory 'Saum' after being clean.
2 : If menses starts during 'Fard (obligatory) Salat' then the Salat is also excused. One s not to offer compensatory Salat after being clean. But if the menses starts during 'Nafil' or 'Sunnah' Salat, then one has to offer compensatory 'Namaz' for that. If the menses starts after observing Saum for half a day, then that 'Saum' breached, and one has to boserve compensatory 'Saum' for that. If the menses starts during the 'Nafil Saum' then compensatory 'Saum' for that is also due.
3 : If menses comes at a time when there is very little time left for offering Salat then also Salat is excused.
4 : It is not proper for one to indulge in sexual intercourse with one's husband, but to lie down with the husband or eating drinking with him is allowed.
5 : If one habitually has menses for five or more days and the blood also come exactly for that period and then stopped, then sexual intercourse is not permissible unless she takes bath. If she does not take bath then she cane have sexual intercourse after period of one compensatory Salat is over.
6 : If one has a habit of five days, but the menses stopped after days, then she should compulsorily offer Salat after taking bath. But one is not allowed to get indulged in sexual intercourse before five days are completed, because there is not chance for the menses to come.
7 : If the menses comes the whole ten days and nights, then sexual intercourse is proper only after menses stopped, whether she has taken bath or not.
8 : If the blood stops after a day or two, then bath is not compulsory, one can offer Salat after performing Wudu, but sexual intercourse is not yet allowed. So, if menses starts before a fortnight is over then it will be known that the period was that of menses, In such a case, the period by calculation should be taken as that of menses. Now one should offer Salat after taking bath. But if the entire fortnight in between is over without bleeding, then it will be considered as 'Istehada'. So the Salats that were left off because of bleeding for a day or two, will now be offered in the compensatory from.
9 : If the menses habitually comes for three days, but it so happens that in a certain month, bleeding does not stop, then one should neither take bath nor offer Salat. If bleeding stops after full ten days and nights or less than that period, then Salat for those days are excused and no compensatory Salat is to be offered; and it will be taken as if the habit is now changed and so all these days will come under the period of menses. If it bleeds for the eleventh day too, then only three days will come under the account of menses and the rest will be counted as 'Istehada'. Now one should take bath on the eleventh day and offer compensatory Salat for seven days and should continue Salat without a break.
10: If the menses come for less than ten days and it stopped when the time for offering Salat is so little that even if she hastily takes bath she can hardly say Allah-u-Akbar only once and make intent (niy-yah) for Salat and nothing else, then also the Salat of that time becomes due and one has to offer compensatory Salat. But in case of a lesser time than this, the Salat is excused and no compensatory Salat will be due.
11: If the menses comes for full ten days and nights and bleeding stopped at a time that nothing other than Allah-u-Akbar cane be uttered and also she does not have time for a bath too, then also Salat become compulsory and one has to offer compensatory Salat.
12: if one comes clean in the day during the month of Ramadan, then after being clean, eating and drinking is not proper. One should compulsorily live like the observers of 'Saum'. But the day will not be counted in 'Saum', rather compensatory 'Saum' for the day will have to be observed.
13: If one has become clean after ten days of menses, then if the part of the night is so little that Allah-u-Akbar can be said only once, then also the 'saum' for the day following is compulsory. In case the part of night left was enough for taking bath but did not do so, then she should not break her 'saum' , rather she should make 'niy-yah' ( intent) for the 'Saum' and take bath in the morning. But if the part of night left is so little that one cane not even take bath, then the 'Saum' of the next morning is not valid. But eating and drinking in the morning is also not proper. One should pass her day like an observer of 'Saum' and observe compulsory 'Saum' later on.
14: Menses starts by the time blood comes upto the outer skin (of vagina). It makes no difference whether it comes out of the outer skin or not. If one keeps cotton pad ect. inside vagina so that blood does not come out of vagina; it will not be taken as menses. Till the blood remains and the cotton pad is not stained, it will not be taken as menses. If the blood stain appears on the outer skin of vagina or on the cotton pad, then the woman will be considered as started.
15: If a clean woman keeps pad inside her vagina in the night and finds blood-stain on it in the morning, then the period of menses will be counted from the time the blood stain has come to knowledge.
About Istehada (Prolonged morbid menstruation)1: Istehada is like bleeding at the nose without a brake. Such a women should offer 'Salat' and observe 'Saum'. No compensatory prayer is necessary in such a cade; and sexual intercourse with such a woman in quite right.
Not : Istehada has the orders of the disabled and the excused.
About Nifas (After birth discharge) and Haiz (Menses)1 : A woman who is passing from the period of menses of 'Nifas' and has bath compulsory for her, it is not permissible for her to enter a mosque, circumambulate the Kalimah, recite the Holy Qur'an or touch it. But if the Holy Qur'an is put in a case or wrapped in a bag of cloth which is not stitched with the cover and that can easily be put off then it is permissible to touch or lift the Holy Qur'an.
2 : One who is without Wudu (ablution) should not touch the Holy Qur'an; but, it cane be orally recited.
3 : The coins or saucer of amulet having verses of the Holy Qur'an written on it should also not be touched. But if these articles are kept in a bag or vessel, then these containers my be touched and lifted.
4 : To hold or lift the Holy Qur'an with the skirt of shirt and corner of 'Dupatta' (sheet worn loosely over shoulder) in not proper. But if there is some clothe detached from the body like handkerchief, towel etc.; they can be used for holding and lifting the Holy Qur'an.
5 : If (during the period of menses or Nifas) on recites not the whole of a verse or just a word of a verse or half of a verse, it is proper. But this half of averse should not be as big as some small a verse.
6 : if Surah Al-Fatihah or Al-Hamd as a whole to be recited with the intention of Du'a (invocation) or other invocations from the Holy Qur'an are recited with the intention of invocation only and with an intention of recitation, then it is permissible. It is not a sin. The following invocation; for example;
Invocation In Arabic
Rab-bana aatina fid-dunya hasanatanw wa fil akhirate hasanatanw wa Q'ena Adhabanner.and the following invocation:
Rabbana la tu akhidhna innasina aw akhtanaupto the last written at the end of Surah Baqara or my other invocation that has occurred on the Holy Qur'an can be recited with the intention of invocation.
1 : Recitation of Dua-e-Qunut is also permissible (in such a condition).
2 : If a woman gives lessons in the Holy Qur'an to othe, then (in such a condition) she can only teach them the spellings of words, but should break the breath after a word or two and teach fluency in parts.
3 : To recite Kalimah (word) or Darood or to call out the name of Allah or to recite 'Istighfar' or Incantation (Wazifah) for instance,
La haula wala quwwata illa billahil ali-ul-azeemis not prohibited.
4 : During the period of menses, it is appreciable to perform Wudu and recite the name of Allah at some clean spot so that the habit of Salat may not be broken and she may not feel disgusted after being clean.
5 : If one had a need for taking bath but the menses started before she could take bath, then bathing is not compulsory for her. She should rather take bath after being clean form the menses. Only one bath is enough fro both of them.
About cleaning of the Pollution1 : If the semen in the clothe dries up, then it will be clean only after semen is being scratched, but the wet semen requires washing. But if one had not performed 'Istinja' (cleaning after a natural evacuation) and the semen is discharged in the meanwhile, then only rubbing will not be enough, rather washing would be necessary.
About Salat1 : If one is giving birth to a child but only a small portion of the child had appeared, then also it is Fard (obligatory) to offer Salat, provided she is conscious. To give up Salat is not proper. But if offering of Salat endangers the life of the child, then she is allowed to give up Salat. In the same way, if the mid-wife thinks that offering of Salat on her part may harm the child to be born, then she also cane give up the Salat. But all of them should offer compensatory Salt as soon as possible.
About Attaining Puberty1 : When a girl gets menses started or though menses has not started, but she becomes pregnant or though she has not been pregnant, but she commits sexual intercourse in dream and had a seminal discharge as well as taste of sexual intercourse then in all these three states of affairs she attains puberty. 'Saum' and al other orders of 'Shari'ah' (Code of Islam) will be applied on her. In case, she had not yet experienced any one of the three things mentioned above but has now become fifteen years old, then also she becomes young (or attains puberty) and she will come under the laws which are applied on a young girl.
2 : In 'Shari'ah', to become young means to attain puberty. No woman (girl) can become young before nine. Even If she starts bleeding (before nine) she connot be taken as young. The blood which comes before nine is not menses but 'Istehada' and orders of 'Shari'ah' have already been mentioned in this regard.
About Burial Rites1 : If abortion is caused and if the child born has not developed limbs lime mouth, nose etc., then without giving bath and shroud, it should be wrapped in a piece of cloth and be buried into a pit dug for the purpose. In case, the new-born child has developed some limbs, then it will come under the order of the child born dead. Now it should be named and given bath, but it be given no shroud nor any Salat-Janaza (funeral prayer) should be offered. It should buried after having wrapped in a piece of cloth.
2 : During the process of birth, if only the head of the child appears and the child as dead, then it will come under the rules of a dead child. But if the child is dead after a major portion come out, it will be considered to be born alive. If the child is born from the side of head, then if the child is born upto its chest, it will be considered that the major portion is out; and if it come out with the reversed side, it should be out up to its navel.
Ecxtract from : Problems of Men & Women - By Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi